Bibliography: Learning Outcomes In Sustainability

Ashwani Vasishth <> October 13, 2011


Allevato, Eugene & Joan Marques.  2011.  "Systemic thinking from a scientific and spiritual perspective," Journal of Global Responsibility, v2n1 (2011): 23-45.   [Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enhance awareness and foment the concept of "eco-citizenship" within today's students in higher education. Design/methodology/approach - The paper takes the form of a literature review on environmental issues and spiritual thinking, student reports, discussion. Findings - The paper's three main findings are: the need to develop educational methodologies that allow students to become advocates of a new society and way of thinking is insufficiently addressed so far; exposing students to such learning triggers a factual mindset change; and faculty and student engagement on matters of spirituality and environmental issues is becoming pivotal in a period where natural resource limitations in conjunction with overpopulation are stressing ecological systems to a threshold where it cannot be sustainable any further. Research limitations/implications - Further implementation of similar courses, and monitoring of students' long-term behavioral changes are suggested to verify if such courses trigger a domino effect in terms of the emergence of the "eco-citizen". Originality/value - This was the first time that such an educational approach was employed, where students not only critically investigated the course material in respect to environmental science and spirituality but also became facilitators to their own community, assisting in the development of good citizenship and enhancement of responsibility. It is clear to the authors that community interaction is very important in the curriculum design as the working ground to bring real world experience to the classroom as well as for the development of environmental and spiritual awareness. Based on the students' community activities and personal comments, in regard to the course focus and its effectiveness in changing their attitudes towards a more sustainable way of living, it was demonstrated that the course was successful.]


Altomonte, Sergio.  2009.  "Environmental Education for Sustainable Architecture," Review of European Studies, v1n2 (Dec 2009): 12-21.   [Awareness of the role that buildings play in the current climate crisis poses new onerous tasks for architectural educators and practitioners. The promotion of sustainability in the design of the built environment is a key-factor for addressing the challenges that mankind faces in response to finite resource availability, ecological deterioration and climate alteration. No longer can the global environmental system support fully-serviced carbon-intensive buildings with the energy consumption and CO2 emissions they trigger. In response to these challenges - and considering the swift development of construction methods and techniques in the building industry - nowadays the professional market demands graduates of architectural disciplines endowed with a number of competences that range from creative design and visualization skills up to detailed technical and environmental competence. A new pedagogical methodology has consequently to be developed in order to overcome existing educational and professional barriers and act as a communication platform that facilitates the transfer of knowledge between sustainability-related building sciences and creative design in the architectural curriculum. The aim of this paper is to critically analyze the hindrances to the successful integration of sustainable environmental design in the pedagogy and practice of architecture and introduce a European Action set to promote the comprehensive implementation of environmental sustainability in building design.]


Benn, Suzanne & Cathy Rusinko.  2011.  "The technological community as a framework for educating for sustainability in business schools," Journal of Management and Organization, v17n5 (Sep 2011): 656-669.   [This paper adapts and extends the technological community perspective (e.g., Van de Ven, 1993), to review and analyze the outcomes of a series of three research projects funded by the Australian Government as reported in a number of publicly available documents. The projects were designed to support education for sustainability within Australian business schools and to promote knowledge sharing between the business schools and industry around sustainability. Project participants included seven business schools and their industry collaborators. The technological community perspective, which is particularly well-suited to examining this innovative education for sustainability project, is a theoretical framework that examines evolution of innovation at the community level; this includes multiple internal and external stakeholders, and is beyond the more traditional uni-dimensional focus on organization or industry levels. This approach provides lessons with respect to complex and dynamic interactions between and among multiple stakeholders responsible for successful development and dissemination of sustainability in business schools, corporations, and beyond. Hence, this paper addresses issues raised in the call for papers for the special issue of Journal of Management and Organization, 'Educating for Sustainability and CSR: What is the role of business schools?' The paper addresses the questions: (1) What are the barriers for business schools with respect to integrating sustainability in the curricula; (2) What role do partnerships with other stakeholders play in such initiatives?]


Boud, David & Nancy Falchikov. 2006. "Aligning Assessment with Long-Term Learning," Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, v31n4 (Aug 2006): 399–413. [Assessment in higher education is commonly held to contribute to feedback to students on their learning and the certification of their achievement. This paper argues that this short-term focus must be balanced against a longer-term emphasis for learning-oriented assessment to foster future learning after graduation. The paper proposes that students need to become assessors within the context of participation in practice, that is, the kinds of highly contextualised learning faced in life and work. It discusses the kinds of practices that are needed to refocus assessment within higher education courses to this end.] 


Brundiers, Katja & Arnim Wiek & Charles L. Redman.  2010.  "Real-world learning opportunities in sustainability: from classroom into the real world," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v11n4 (2010): 308-324.   [Purpose - Academic sustainability programs aim to develop key competencies in sustainability, including problem-solving skills and the ability to collaborate successfully with experts and stakeholders. These key competencies may be most fully developed in new teaching and learning situations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the kind of, and extent to which, these key competencies can be acquired in real-world learning opportunities. Design/methodology/approach - The paper summarizes key competencies in sustainability, identifies criteria for real-world learning opportunities in sustainability programs, and draws on dominant real-world learning models including project- and problem-based learning, service learning, and internships in communities, businesses, and governments. These components are integrated into a framework to design real-world learning opportunities. Findings - A "functional and progressive" model of real-world learning opportunities seems most conducive to introduce students (as well as faculty and community partners) to collaborative research between academic researchers and practitioners. The stepwise process combined with additional principles allows building competencies such as problem solving, linking knowledge to action, and collaborative work, while applying concepts and methods from the field of sustainability. Practical implications - The paper offers examples of real-world learning opportunities at the School of Sustainability at Arizona State University, discusses general challenges of implementation and organizational learning, and draws attention to critical success factors such as collaborative design, coordination, and integration in general introductory courses for undergraduate students. Originality/value - The paper contributes to sustainability education by clarifying how real-world learning opportunities contribute to the acquisition of key competencies in sustainability. It proposes a functional and progressive model to be integrated into the (undergraduate) curriculum and suggests strategies for its implementation.]


Carew, A.L. & C.A. Mitchell. 2002. "Characterizing Undergraduate Engineering Students' Understanding of Sustainability," European Journal of Engineering Education, v27n4 (Dec 2002): 349(13). [Engineering professionals in Australia and internationally are coming under increased pressure to practise engineering more sustainably. In response to this pressure, the Institution of Engineers, Australia, has updated the procedure for accreditation of the engineering baccalaureate to ensure inclusion of sustainability learning. In order to graduate, Australian engineering students must now 'understand sustainability'. This paper reports on a theoretical synthesis of the literature on sustainability and understanding, and an empirical investigation into sustainability conceptions held by a group of chemical engineering undergraduate students at the University of Sydney. During the theoretical synthesis we examined what it might mean for a student to understand sustainability by deriving a suite of sustainability principles and describing the component parts of an expert-like understanding of sustainability. In the empirical investigation, students' written responses to the question 'In your own words, what is sustainability?' were analysed using a modified version of the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy. The SOLO analysis revealed broad structural variation in the way our students understood sustainability.]


Castle, Sidney R. & Chad J McGuire.  2010.  "An Analysis of Student Self-Assessment of Online, Blended, and Face-to-Face Learning Environments: Implications for Sustainable Education Delivery," International Education Studies, v3n3 (Aug 2010): 36-40.  [Online delivery has the potential to offer significant benefits in achieving multiple goals related to sustainable education. For example, students from a variety of backgrounds can access educational opportunity, allowing for vast dissemination of education. In addition, the methods employed in online learning are generally much lower in carbon intensity, providing an added operational benefit to online education. Beyond these stated benefits, we must also identify what components of online education are deemed effective from the student's perspective. This article summarizes a recent study conducted by the authors on overall student self-assessment of learning at a major online university, and compares these results with general pedagogical assumptions regarding the perceived benefits of online learning. The goal is to highlight what factors students find important in ensuring quality learning outcomes in the online learning environment. The extension of this work is to link successful components of online delivery to the general achievement of sustainability in education delivery methods.]


Chaplot, Priyadarshini.  2010.  "Implementation and Sustainability of Learning Assessment Efforts: Facilitators and Inhibitors," Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, v17n2 (Spring 2010): 35-43.   [Over the past few decades, deterioration in student achievement has provoked a pervasive public sentiment that American institutions are failing to meet the needs and expectations of society. The growing public demand for transparency and accountability has fueled the integration of state-mandated learning outcomes assessment into the standards established by regional accrediting agencies. The assessment of student learning outcomes (SLOs) serves as one strategy to improve the scholarship of teaching and learning as well as provide evidence for institutional effectiveness. Though SLOs have been present in the institutional landscape for many years, colleges are still struggling to establish a consistent and sustained program for outcomes assessment. Many college departments have developed SLO assessment plans but continue to face challenges in their implementation. Through interviews with key individuals involved in the SLO assessment process at a California community college, this study investigates the factors that can affect the ability of institutions to implement and institutionalize outcomes assessment efforts.]


Cohen, Nevin.  2010.  "Designing the Sustainable Foodshed: A Cross-Disciplinary Undergraduate Environmental Studies Course," Innovative Higher Education, v35n1 (Feb 2010): 51-60.   [This article demonstrates the educational value of an undergraduate course that integrates design and the liberal arts to teach about ecological systems, using study of the university campus as the means to connect theory and practice. It presents the curricular goals, objectives, results, and lessons learned from a qualitative case study of a cross-disciplinary course that required design and liberal arts students to develop innovative solutions to improve the sustainability of The New School's food system. Student and faculty evaluations suggest that an integrated design and liberal arts course can be an effective and enjoyable method to learn about sustainability and urban systems; and it helps students learn different techniques for research, problem-solving, and communication.]


Cotgrave, Alison J. & Noora Kokkarinen.  2010.  "Developing a model promoting sustainability literacy through construction curriculum design," Structural Survey, v28n4 (2010): 266-280.   [Purpose - The aim of this paper is to describe the research and process used to develop a curriculum design guidance model that can be used to develop a sustainability literate construction curriculum in higher education. Design/methodology/approach - A comparative study between the UK and Australia was undertaken. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in both countries and then analysed to determine what was needed to develop an appropriate model for curriculum design within construction education. Various areas regarding curriculum assessment were considered in order to provide an insightful and comprehensive model for curriculum design. Findings - The results indicated that the UK and Australia do not differ significantly with regards to best practice in curriculum design. Research limitations/implications - The subsequent model can be used by academics to integrate more opportunities for sustainable literacy into construction courses. The proposed model has the potential to be used interchangeably within both countries and possibly beyond. Originality/value - The paper addresses the need for academia to assess the level of environmental knowledge that they disseminate to students as an integrated part of their overall degree rather than at a modular level.]


Fadeeva, Zinaida & Yoko Mochizuki.  2010.  "Higher education for today and tomorrow: university appraisal for diversity, innovation and change towards sustainable development," Sustainability Science, v5n2 (Jul 2010): 249-256.   [This article serves as a position paper of a consortium of universities in the Asia-Pacific region working to address challenges of sustainable development and rapidly changing social, economic and natural environments. Member universities of ProSPER.Net (Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network) have embarked on a project to develop an alternative university appraisal system that would potentially become a viable alternative to the existing higher education ranking and assessment systems perceived as constraining, yet, powerful. The article discusses the changing landscape for knowledge creation and the need for universities to assume new roles in a new kind of modernity - variously termed as liquid modernity (Z Bauman), reflexive modernization (U Beck) or other neologisms. It recognises that the mainstream ranking and assessment systems are powerful guiding systems for higher education institutions (HEI) and, if modified, could be a significant force for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Recognising the need for HEIs to address societal challenges and needs, the Alternative University Appraisal (AUA) project of ProSPER.Net starts by reviewing existing models of recognition and appraisal of various aspects of HEIs' work and aims at creating space for individual and collective reflection on HEI practices and outcomes. In addition to extensive consultations among ProSPER.Net members, as well as with other higher education actors and international organisations addressing higher education for sustainability, cross-sectoral consultations, assessments of the uncertainties and pertinent trends, and engagement with policy-making processes would be required for the AUA system to become a guiding force that shapes higher education of today and tomorrow.]


Gundlach, Michael J. & Suzanne Zivnuska.  2010.  "An Experiential Learning Approach To Teaching Social Entrepreneurship, Triple Bottom Line, And Sustainability: Modifying And Extending Practical Organizational Behavior Education (PROBE)," American Journal of Business Education, v3n1 (Jan 2010):19-28.  [When teaching social entrepreneurship and sustainability, using an experiential learning approach can be more effective than a traditional lecture approach. Social and environmental entrepreneurs often have a deep passion for their work that is important for students to develop early in their careers. Experiential learning enables students to create and experience this passion for themselves, thereby preparing them with the motivational and emotional resources they may need to be successful in the future. We introduce Practical Organizational Behavior Education (PROBE) as one way of helping students develop this passion. PROBE was originally developed as a service-learning project for an undergraduate course in organizational behavior at a very small, private university. However, in this manuscript, we show how PROBE can be modified and extended to effectively teach business students about triple bottom line concepts, sustainability, and social entrepreneurship at the undergraduate and MBA levels within a large, public university system. We provide practical suggestions for instructors interested in implementing this approach in a broad variety of settings.]


Hansmann, Ralf & Harald A Mieg & Peter M Frischknecht.  2011.  "Qualifications for Contributing to Sustainable Development: A Survey of Environmental Sciences Graduates," Gaia, v19n4 (2010): 278-286.   [A survey of Environmental Sciences graduates from ETH Zurich was conducted to gain insights into their sustainability-oriented activities. 567 participants provided 672 concrete best-practice examples of their professional contributions to sustainable development. The contributions addressed ecological, economic, and social aspects of sustainability, and 47 percent of them attempted to systematically integrate these dimensions. Responsible use of resources and the protection of the natural environment were the main foci of the examples, and many promoted health and safety of the public or enhanced the innovative power of the economy. Qualifications denoted as helpful for realizing the contributions included broad natural scientific knowledge and ecological systems understanding, as well as in-depth knowledge in specific fields or domains of application. Participants thus judged their interdisciplinary environmental science education as advantageous compared to conventional disciplinary programs. Social and communication skills, in particular for convincing communication, also proved important for realizing the examples.]


Hayward, Graeme & Alan Diduck & Bruce Mitchell.  2007.  "Social Learning Outcomes in the Red River Floodway Environmental Assessment," Environmental Practice, v9n4 (Dec 2007): 239-250.   [Resource and environmental managers are increasingly facing problems characterized by high degrees of ecological and social complexity, uncertainty and indeterminacy, and conflicts over values and interests. Moreover, they are often faced with the need to generate positive change in dynamic social-ecological systems. Comprehensive, rational management approaches have often failed to respond effectively to these types of problems. In response, policy makers and managers are increasingly relying on social learning approaches, i.e., adaptive and participatory approaches that facilitate learning by the individuals and organizations involved in resource and environmental governance. In this article, we examine social learning outcomes from the participation of two community organizations in the environmental assessment (EA) of a proposal to expand the Red River Floodway, a 48-km channel that diverts floodwaters around Winnipeg, Canada. The research design was a qualitative, comparative case study involving a review of documents, semi-structured interviews, and direct observation at meetings, open houses, and public hearings. The study findings demonstrate how EA public involvement processes can provide excellent opportunities for single-loop learning in community organizations. Through their involvement, the organizations in question deepened their knowledge, honed their skills, and made substantive contributions to the assessment process. The findings also suggest that public involvement processes can result in double-loop social learning conducive to sustainability. An important catalyst for the double-loop experience in this case was the provision of intervener funding. The findings also shed light on the organizational structure variables essential to create capacity for social learning in community organizations.]


Hopkinson, Peter & Peter James.  2010.  "Practical pedagogy for embedding ESD in science, technology, engineering and mathematics curricula," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v11n4 (2010): 365-379.  [Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and highlight some recent examples of embedding education for sustainable development (ESD), within science and related curricula in ways that are meaningful and relevant to staff and students and reflect on different embedding strategies and discourses. Design/methodology/approach - A review of recent selected UK and international teaching and learning practice drawing on an expert workshop and link to wider debates about student competencies and embedding ESD in the curriculum. Findings - There are a number of practical ways of bringing sustainable development into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Successful implementation requires linking teaching activities to the core activities of the STEM discipline. Reformist approaches to curriculum re-orientation are more likely to be successful than calls for radical, transformational models. Practical implications - Embedding ESD into the core curricula of STEM subjects is potentially difficult. This paper highlights practical ways of doing this which can be adopted and introduced within the mainstream of STEM curricula and have a greater chance of being taken up than bolt-on approaches. Originality/value - The treatment of ESD in STEM subjects is relatively under-developed compared to social sciences, humanities and subjects allied to environment. The economic and social significance of STEM subjects means that STEM-related subjects are integral to sustainable development and therefore STEM education must be re-oriented to sustainable development.]


McNaughton, Marie J. 2004. "Educational Drama In the Teaching of Education for Sustainability," Environmental Education Research, v10n2 (May 2004): 139-155. [In this paper, I describe part of my research project that examines the use of Educational Drama in Education for Sustainability in the upper stages of the primary school (10- and 11-year-olds). Central to the research is a small-scale qualitative research study. Here, I describe the educational focus of the study and outline the methodology. Central to the study was a series of drama lessons (taught by me) based on environmental themes. The lessons link with some of the key aims in Education for Sustainability-to help young people to develop awareness, knowledge and concepts, to encourage positive attitudes and personal lifestyle decisions and to help them to acquire action skills in and for the environment. The locus is within the Scottish education system. A number of key data were generated during the teaching and evaluation of the lessons. These take the form of field notes, children's evaluations of their work and learning, observation schedules, taped interviews with participants and observers and videotapes of the lessons. The analysis of the data is ongoing, but already there is substantial evidence to suggest that the drama was instrumental in helping the children to achieve the learning outcomes set for the lessons. Some of that evidence is presented here. I suggest that the active, participative learning central to drama is particularly useful for allowing children to develop skills in communication, collaboration and expressing ideas and opinions. Also, the immersion in the imagined context and narrative, integral to the 'stories' in the drama, allows the children to feel sympathy for and empathy with people who are affected by environmental issues and problems. In giving the children a context for research and in helping them to plan solutions and to suggest alternatives, the drama allows the participants opportunities to rehearse active citizenship and facilitates learning in Education for Sustainability.]


Mochizuki, Yoko & Zinaida Fadeeva.  2010.  "Competences for sustainable development and sustainability:Significance and challenges for ESD," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v11n4 (2010): 391-403.   [Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to draw attention of the education for sustainable development (ESD) community to recent discussions on competence approaches and to examine the adequacy of a competence-based model as the means of achieving educational and societal transformation towards sustainability. The paper analyses and highlights some important aspects of case studies of the contributing authors to the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on the review of relevant literature and reflections on the articles that constitute this special issue. It also reflects the authors' observations through their extensive interactions with theoreticians, practitioners and policy makers on ESD in the context of the United Nations decade of education for sustainable development (DESD) and higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Findings - The paper recognises a highly complex nature of the conceptualizations of competences for SD and their articulation in educational programmes. It also highlights a growing interest in competence-based approaches from institutions of higher education and their stakeholders in different parts of the world. Practical implications - The paper provides a broad picture of influential international processes and diverse players driving competence-based approaches in ESD and indicates a need for more coherent critical multi-level analysis of such processes. Originality/value - The paper contributes to a broader debate on strategies of implementation of ESD and education for sustainability (EfS) by mapping arguments on competences for SD and sustainability with a particular focus on higher education institutions.]


Musacchio, Laura R.  2009.  "The scientific basis for the design of landscape sustainability: A conceptual framework for translational landscape research and practice of designed landscapes and the six Es of landscape sustainability," Landscape Ecology, v24n8 (Oct 2009): 993-1013.   [Landscape researchers and practitioners, using the lens of sustainability science, are breaking new ground about how people's behaviors and actions influence the structure, function, and change of designed landscapes in an urbanizing world. The phrase--the scientific basis of the design for landscape sustainability--is used to describe how sustainability science can contribute to translational landscape research and practice about the systemic relationships among landscape sustainability, people's contact with nature, and complex place-based problems. In the first section of this article, important definitions about the scientific basis of the design for landscape sustainability are reviewed including the six Es of landscape sustainability--environment, economic, equity, aesthetics, experience, and ethics. A conceptual framework about the six Es of landscape sustainability for designed landscapes is introduced. The interrelatedness, opportunities, contradictions, and limitations of the conceptual framework are discussed in relation to human health/security, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and resource management. The conceptual framework about the six Es of landscape sustainability for designed landscapes follows the tradition in which landscape researchers and practitioners synthesize emerging trends into conceptual frameworks for advancing basic and applied activities.]


Myers Jr., Olin Eugene & Almut Beringer.  2010.  "Sustainability in Higher Education: Psychological Research for Effective Pedagogy," The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, v40n2 (2010): 51-77.   [[William Perry] (1970/1998, 1981; see also Belenky et al., 1986) characterized nine psychological "positions," with developmental steps happening between them. Perry found that many students enter college in the stage he called "dualism/received knowledge" (which he numbered position 2; position 1 is a pure hypothetical form of absolutism). As in all the Perry positions, a particular form of thinking characterizes these students in terms of their stance on both epistemological and value matters (Table 1). "Dualism/ received knowledge" is characterized by a belief in "right/wrong" answers that are known to authorities and experts. These students see their task as learning the "right" solutions to questions and problems. As their college encounter with diverse authorities and perspectives continues, students' thinking is later characterized by "multiplicity/ subjective knowledge" (position 3). Students no longer see the world of truth and values in such black-or-white terms. They now realize there are conflicting answers, so trusting one's inner truth and not relying on external authority becomes legitimate. In "relativism/procedural knowledge" (position 4), students evaluate how authorities define their areas of subject matter, generate questions, and justify their assertions. Further intellectual-ethical development lies in the direction of "contextual relativism" (position 5), while later positions (6 to 9), including "commitment in relativism/constructed knowledge," have a more ethical flavour.]


Nicol, David J. & Debra Macfarlane-Dick. 2005. "Formative Assessment and Self-regulated Learning: A Model and Seven Principles of Good Feedback Practice," Studies In Higher Education, (2005). [The research on formative assessment and feedback is re-interpreted to show how these processes can help students take control of their own learning – i.e. become self-regulated learners. This reformulation is used to identify seven principles of good feedback practice that support self-regulation. A key argument is that students are already assessing their own work and generating their own feedback and that higher education should build on this ability. The research underpinning each feedback principle is presented and some examples of easy-to-implement feedback strategies are briefly described. This shift in focus, whereby students are seen as having a proactive rather than a reactive role in generating and using feedback, has profound implications for the way in which teachers organise assessments and support learning.] 


Okonkwo, Charity.  2010.  "Rethinking and restructuring an assessment system via effective deployment of technology," International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, v6n2 (2010): (15 pp.)   [Every instructional process involves a strategic assessment system for a complete teaching - learning circle. Assessment system which is seriously challenged calls for a change in the approach. The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) assessment system at present is challenged. The large number of students and numerous courses offered by NOUN as an open and distance learning institution make assessment very cumbersome and an administrative nightmare. This paper has employed descriptive approach in studying the nature and various directions of challenges associated with NOUN assessment. These challenges are related to conduct of examination such as question paper, finance, manpower, collation of results and release of meaningful results. The study explores how technology envisaged to ameliorate these challenges can effectively be employed to restructure assessment in NOUN. Issues relevant for effective deployment of technology in restructuring like question bank, logistic operations, operational processes of technology and formal registration of students for assessment are discussed for ease of implementation. Implications for the use of technology in assessment are presented. Cogent recommendations are made for effectiveness of the system. In sum, the deployment of technology is a viable sustainable strategy open to NOUN to effectively manage the burden of assessment of students' learning outcomes.]


Pepper, Coral & Helen Wildy. 2008. "Leading for Sustainability: Is Surface Understanding Enough?" Journal of Educational Administration, v46n5 (2008): 613-629 [This paper aims to report an investigation of how education for sustainability is conceptualised, incorporated across the curriculum and led in three Western Australian Government secondary schools. It also reports on processes to enable education for sustainability to become embedded into these schools. Data for the research were gathered through semi-structured interviews with teachers who were reputedly leading education for sustainability. With the exception of one participant, the concept of education for sustainability is not widely embraced in the schools of this study. Instead participants focus only on the environmental aspect of sustainability. Again, with the exception of one participant, education for sustainability remains fragmented and vulnerable to changing school conditions. Leadership of education for sustainability occurs whimsically and with little vision for the future across this study with little evidence of alliance building or collaboration among colleagues. The paper concludes that leading for sustainability requires a combination of a deep knowledge of sustainability; forward thinking and the ability to imagine a different future; the interpersonal and networking skills to build strong relationships; and the energy and capability of taking action to achieve the imagined different future.]


Petocz, Peter & Peter Dixon.  2011.  "Sustainability and Ethics: Graduate Dispositions in Business Education," Asian Social Science, v7n4 (Apr 2011): 18-25.  [In this paper we investigate sustainability and ethics as graduate dispositions for students of business in the early 21st century. We base our theoretical position on recent research investigating students' and lecturers' conceptions of sustainability and ethics. We apply this to the practical pedagogical problem of helping students to engage with the notions of sustainability and ethics in their business classes. In this, we use our recent experiences with a project investigating the development and embedding of graduate skills in the business curriculum and, more specifically, with a three-day workshop for business students run by our team during the course of this project. We draw conclusions about dispositional learning and suggest practical ways in which this can be advanced.]


Podger, Dimity Margaret & Elena Mustakova-Possardt & Anna Reid.  2010.  "A whole-person approach to educating for sustainability," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v11n4 (2010): 339-352.   [Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of a whole-person approach to educating for sustainability (EfS), with a focus on persons' identity, motivation and higher order dispositions. To propose that approach as an alternative to the prevalent focus on specific capabilities and competencies in higher education for sustainability. The paper brings to bear psychological research on the development of critical moral consciousness, research on dispositions for learning in higher education, and field research on spiritually inspired service-learning. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, critical analysis is undertaken on the discourses that represent two fields of study in order to explore the application of the theory of the ontogenesis of "critical moral consciousness". The model is applied to two discrete areas to consider implications for higher education - field research on grass-root Baha'i-inspired service-learning and EfS, and students involved in design education. Findings - The findings suggest that a whole-person approach to EfS may yield more fruitful societal and personal benefits than traditional, and predominantly, behavioural approaches. Research limitations/implications - The paper only refers to two case studies. One case study is of a faith based organisation used to represent a whole-person approach to EfS in a social context. It could be that the findings of this case are influenced by perceptions of religious activity (for both authors and readers). The second case study is of a particulate discipline area - design. Whilst the findings represent learners in the design context, it may be that learners in different contexts have different (or similar) results. Originality/value - Sustainability has now become a common orientation for learning. The paper contributes conceptual understanding of the types of dispositions higher education needs to foster, as well as congruent pedagogies, in order to nurture human motivations necessary to advance sustainability. In particular, there is a need for EfS to focus on the cultivation of critical moral consciousness and higher order dispositions as a specific orientation towards studies, work, and social interactions.]


Pontikis, Kyriakos & Allen Martin & Yi Cai & Jongeun Kim & Wei Cao & Angie Giordano & Setareh Torabian-Riasati.  2011.  "Sustainability in Teaching, Research, and Community Practice: The FCS Department at California State University, Northridge," Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, v103n2 (Spring 2011): 40-46.   [The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how a large comprehensive family and consumer sciences unit has incorporated sustainability into its curriculum and research agenda. It summarizes how each area within the department (Interior Design, Apparel Design and Merchandising, Consumer Affairs, Family Studies, Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science) has been addressing sustainability concepts. It also explains how faculty came together to offer a co-taught seminar that combines sustainability concepts across the department. A brief description of this seminar, including learning objectives and outcome measures, is presented. This article offers an agenda for departmental curricular and research activities-some of which are student centered or collaborations among faculty-that incorporate sustainability knowledge and practices within the local and global communities.]


Rubin, Kyna. 2009. "Globalizing General Education," International Educator, v18n5 (Sep/Oct 2009): 20-24,26-29. [In the twenty-first century, few updated mission statements omit the goal of giving young people the skills and knowledge they need to understand other cultures and compete in the global workforce. Providing Global Education at Home Equipping U.S. college students to become effective world citizens and workers begins with a general internationalization of U.S. campuses. The presence of international students on campuses as well as international scholars teaching and conducting research at institutions outside of their home countries has traditionally been one method of campus internationalization - encouraging a more global perspective.]


Segalas, J. & D. Ferrer-Balas & K.F. Mulder. 2008. "Conceptual Maps: Measuring Learning Processes of Engineering Students Concerning Sustainable Development," European Journal of Engineering Education, v33n3 (Jun 2008): 297-306. [In the 1990s, courses on sustainable development (SD) were introduced in technological universities. After some years of practice, there is increased interest in the evaluation of the most effective ways for teaching SD. This paper introduces the use of conceptual maps as a tool to measure the knowledge acquired by students when taking a Sustainability course. Pilot measurements have been made to evaluate the concepts and their interrelations in order to evaluate the students' learning. These measurements were carried out using a sample of more than 700 European students. To measure the learning outcomes of courses, the evaluation is done twice. Before the course starts, the students' previous knowledge on sustainability is measured; once the students have completed the course they are evaluated again. By comparing conceptual maps drawn by each student, the improvement of the students' knowledge is evaluated. This paper shows the measuring process, and points out the suitability of using conceptual maps for research in education. Moreover, the correlation between the learning outcomes the pedagogical techniques used in each course may indicate the effectiveness of the pedagogical strategies in education for sustainable development]

Shephard, Kerry. 2008. "Higher Education for Sustainability: Seeking Affective Learning Outcomes," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v9n1 (2008): 87-98.  [Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to interpret aspects of education for sustainability in relation to educational theories of the affective domain (values, attitudes and behaviours) and suggest how the use of these theories, and relevant experience, in other educational areas could benefit education for sustainability. Design/methodology/approach - An analysis based on a literature review of relevant educational endeavours in affective learning. Findings - This paper suggests that most teaching and assessment in higher education focus on cogitative skills of knowledge and understanding rather than on affective outcomes of values, attitudes and behaviours. Some areas of higher education, however, have effectively pursued affective outcomes and these use particular learning and teaching activities to do so. Key issues for consideration include assessing outcomes and evaluating courses, providing academic credit for affective outcomes, key roles for role models and designing realistic and acceptable learning outcomes in the affective domain. Practical implications - Educators for sustainability could use this relevant theoretical underpinning and experience gained in other areas of education to address the impact of their own learner-support activities. Originality/value - Educators have traditionally been reluctant to pursue affective learning outcomes but often programmes of study simply fail to identify and describe their legitimate aims in these terms. This paper emphasises the application of a relevant theoretical underpinning to support educators' legitimate aspirations for affective learning outcomes. It will also help these educators to reflect on how the use of these approaches accords with the liberal traditions of higher education.]


Sibbel, Anne.  2009.  "Pathways Towards Sustainability Through Higher Education," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v10n1 (2009): 68-82.  [Purpose - The aim of this paper is to contribute to aligning higher education towards meeting the challenge of global sustainability. Design/methodology/approach - The barriers to sustainability are juxtaposed against the resources, responsibilities and potential of higher education. Ideas from several models and from within several disciplines are integrated to construct a framework through the challenges can be examined and then translated into learning outcomes, expressed as graduate attributes. Findings - The focus of education for global sustainability has been on encouraging consumers to modify patterns of resource consumption and waste management. However, there are some significant limitations to relying on consumer action. Future professionals, involved in managing resources or designing options from which consumers make choices, are in a much better position for influencing how social, cultural and environmental resources are used. To actualise this potential requires that higher education curricula offer experiences which develop graduate attributes of self-efficacy, capacity for effective advocacy and interdisciplinary collaboration, as well as raise awareness of social and moral responsibilities associated with professional practice. Research limitations/implications - For higher education to contribute towards achieving sustainability requires support of the whole institution, and considerable professional development of staff to help them appreciate how they can lead the next generation to global sustainability. The next stage of the research into the role of higher education in building a sustainable society should focus on how these objectives can be achieved. Originality/value - Considerable research has been dedicated to describing the urgent and intractable nature of the problems facing the global community and, to some extent, the need for higher education to engage with these problems. This paper takes the next step by presenting some guidelines for designing curricula to develop graduate attributes required for this work.]


Sipos, Yona & Bryce Battisti & Kurt Grimm. 2008. " Achieving Transformative Sustainability Learning: Engaging Head, Hands and Heart," Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v9n1 (2008): 68-86.  [Purpose - The current UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development echoes many scholars' calls to re-envision education for sustainability. Short of a complete overhaul of education, the paper seeks to propose learning objectives that can be integrated across existing curricula. These learning objectives are organized by head, hands and heart - balancing cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. University programs and courses meeting these learning objectives exhibit an emergent property here termed transformative sustainability learning (TSL). Design/methodology/approach - Theoretically, TSL grew from traditions of sustainability education and transformative education. Practically, TSL emerged from experimental learning collaborations sponsored by the University of British Columbia in 2003 and 2004 in an effort to enable explicit transitions to sustainability-oriented higher education. Primarily through action research, these community-based, applied learning experiences constituted cyclical processes of innovation, implementation and reflection. Findings - The paper finds: advancement of head, hands and heart as an organizing principle by which to integrate transdisciplinary study (head); practical skill sharing and development (hands); and translation of passion and values into behaviour (heart); development of a cognitive landscape for understanding TSL as a unifying framework amongst related sustainability and transformative pedagogies that are inter/transdisciplinary, practical and/or place-based; creation of learning objectives, organized to evaluate a course or program's embodiment of TSL. Originality/value - By enabling change within existing structures of higher education, the paper complements and contributes to more radical departures from the institution. The work to date demonstrates potential in applying this learning framework to courses and programs in higher education.]


Stephens, Jennie C. & Maria E. Hernandez & Mikael Román & Amanda C. Graham & Roland W. Scholz. 2008."Higher Education As A Change Agent for Sustainability In Different Cultures and Contexts," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v9n3 (2008): 317-338.  [Purpose - The goal of this paper is to enhance consideration for the potential for institutions of higher education throughout the world, in different cultures and contexts, to be change agents for sustainability. As society faces unprecedented and increasingly urgent challenges associated with accelerating environmental change, resource scarcity, increasing inequality and injustice, as well as rapid technological change, new opportunities for higher education are emerging. Design/methodology/approach - The paper builds on the emerging literature on transition management and identifies five critical issues to be considered in assessing the potential for higher education as a change agent in any particular region or place. To demonstrate the value of these critical issues, exemplary challenges and opportunities in different contexts are provided. Findings - The five critical issues include regional-specific dominant sustainability challenges, financing structure and independence, institutional organization, the extent of democratic processes, and communication and interaction with society. Originality/value - Given that the challenges and opportunities for higher education as a change agent are context-specific, identifying, synthesizing, and integrating common themes is a valuable and unique contribution.]


Stone, Michael K.  2010.  "A Schooling for Sustainability Framework," Teacher Education Quarterly, v37n4 (2010): 33-46.   [David W. Orr of Oberlin College describes the task facing educators: to teach students how they are part of the natural world; to emphasize selfunderstanding and personal mastery; to recognize the responsibility to use knowledge well in the world; to understand the effects on people and communities of the application of knowledge; to provide role models of integrity, care, and thoughtfulness in institutions whose actions embody their ideals; to recognize that the process of education is as important as its contents.1 Orr sits on the board of the Center for Ecoliteracy Berkeley, California. Since its founding in 1995 by Zenobia Barlow, Peter Buckley, and Fritjof Capra, this public foundation's mission has been education for sustainable living. Since the outstanding characteristic of the biosphere is its inherent ability to sustain life, a sustainable community may be defined as one that is designed in such a way that its ways of life, businesses, economy, physical structures, and technologies respect, honor, and cooperate with nature's inherent ability to sustain life.7 The capacity to create sustainable societies, in this understanding, depends on ecological literacy-the ability to understand the basic principles of ecology, coupled with the values, skills, and conviction to act on that understanding.]


Svanström, Magdalena & Francisco J. Lozano-García & Debra Rowe.  2008.  "Learning outcomes for sustainable development in higher education," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v9n3 (2008): 339-351.   [Purpose - This paper sets out to discuss the commonalities that can be found in learning outcomes (LOs) for education for sustainable development in the context of the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations. The commonalities include systemic or holistic thinking, the integration of different perspectives, skills such as critical thinking, change agent abilities and communication, and finally different attitudes and values. Design/methodology/approach - An analysis of LOs that are proposed in the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations is conducted, showing specific issues for the commonalities presented. Examples of LOs from Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) in Mexico, as well as various associations from the USA is shown. A brief discussion is done on the means to achieve these LOs and learning evaluation. Findings - In the example sets of LOs shown, the commonalities presented in the paper's first section appear in the LOs proposed by the institutions. Based on current knowledge and perception, sustainability is properly addressed in the examples. Practical implications - The paper can be used to foster a wider discussion and analysis of LOs for sustainability education, also further work on teachers' capacity building for sustainability, as well as the assessment needed for future professionals in higher education institutions. Originality/value - The paper presents the onset of discussing and comparing commonalities among higher education institutions regarding sustainability LOs.]


Svanström, Magdalena & Francisco J. Lozano-García & Debra Rowe. 2008. " Learning Outcomes for Sustainable Development In Higher Education," International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, v9n3 (2008): 339-351.  [Purpose - This paper sets out to discuss the commonalities that can be found in learning outcomes (LOs) for education for sustainable development in the context of the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations. The commonalities include systemic or holistic thinking, the integration of different perspectives, skills such as critical thinking, change agent abilities and communication, and finally different attitudes and values. Design/methodology/approach - An analysis of LOs that are proposed in the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations is conducted, showing specific issues for the commonalities presented. Examples of LOs from Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) in Mexico, as well as various associations from the USA is shown. A brief discussion is done on the means to achieve these LOs and learning evaluation. Findings - In the example sets of LOs shown, the commonalities presented in the paper's first section appear in the LOs proposed by the institutions. Based on current knowledge and perception, sustainability is properly addressed in the examples. Practical implications - The paper can be used to foster a wider discussion and analysis of LOs for sustainability education, also further work on teachers' capacity building for sustainability, as well as the assessment needed for future professionals in higher education institutions. Originality/value - The paper presents the onset of discussing and comparing commonalities among higher education institutions regarding sustainability LOs.]


Vincent, Shirley & Will Focht.  2010.  "Environmental Reviews And Case Studies: In Search of Common Ground: Exploring Identity and Core Competencies for Interdisciplinary Environmental Programs," Environmental Practice, v12n1 (Mar 2010): 76-86.   [The National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP) and other constituencies have advocated the development of core competency guidelines for environmental educational programs for many years. Despite the high level of interest, no consensus has emerged on program identity that could lead to their development. The lack of a clearly defined identity has threatened program legitimacy and raised concerns about how well these programs are preparing students for entry into the environmental profession. To address these concerns, the Council of Environmental Deans and Directors, a group of academic environmental program leaders operating under the auspices of the National Council for Science and the Environment, launched a study to learn more about extant program curricula and investigate the potential for reaching consensus on core competence areas. In this article, we review selected findings from the study to date and discuss their implications for the development of core competency criteria. Despite differing perspectives on curriculum design, our research indicates that programs share a common vision of program identity congruent with sustainability. A review of employer and employee surveys and reports from environmental professionals also point toward participation in and understanding of sustainability processes as increasingly important components of practice. Taken together, these findings indicate that sustainability could serve as an overarching paradigm to inform the development of core knowledge and skill competency recommendations for curriculum design.]


von der Heidt, Tania & Geoff Lamberton.  2011.  "Sustainability in the undergraduate and postgraduate business curriculum of a regional university: A critical perspective," Journal of Management and Organization, v17n5 (Sep 2011): 670-690.   [The challenge to embed sustainability in the formal curriculum has been greatest for the business studies curriculum. Schools of business have been perceived as key socialising agencies for the intelligentsia of advanced capitalist societies, whereas the students of sustainability need to be helped to critique the dominant capitalist paradigm and consider its alternatives. Drawing on a critical perspective of education for sustainability, this paper presents a detailed examination of the sustainability curriculum at a regional university in Australia. The paper contributes to the discussion needed to understand what sustainability skills are required by managers and how tertiary education programs may need to change to develop these skills. In this way the nature of the role that business schools should be playing in leading and managing change towards sustainability is further informed.]


Vu, Tori & Brendan Rigby & Leigh N Wood & Anne Daly.  2011.  "Graduate Skills in Business Learning," Asian Social Science, v7n4 (Apr 2011): 2-11.   [This article presents the background to a general increase in interest in developing the graduate skills of undergraduates in business in Australian universities. The change reflects the call from industry for greater emphasis on these skills; changes in the existing skills of students commencing a business education; and in the perceived role of universities in developing their students' capacities. The aim of our project, "Embedding the development and grading of generic skills across the business curriculum" (EDGGS), was to develop new ways of successfully embedding these skills in the curriculum. This article outlines the research methodology and presents our project outcomes. The project has made a significant contribution to the development of readily accessible material for the embedding of generic skills in the business curriculum, as discussed in this and the other articles in this Issue.]


Wood, Leigh N. & Theda Thomas & Brendan Rigby.  2011.  "Assessment and Standards for Graduate Outcomes," Asian Social Science,  v7n4 (Apr 2011): 12-17.  [Assessment drives what students learn and standards drive industry. In this paper we link the two and describe how we developed robust, practical standards for graduate skills that can be used to design learning tasks and rubrics to assess learning tasks. They act also as a clear statement to students about expectations for their learning as well as to industry on the standard of the graduates that universities are delivering.]